Follow Unscatter
jack o'malley
Polish Police set to Ban Spontaneous Protests and Secretly Gather Personal Data at UN Climate Talks
Participants of the next UN climate talks in Poland could be banned from taking part in spontaneous demonstrations and have their personal data collected, stored and used by Polish police without their consent if a draft piece of legislation becomes law.
Marzia Busana
TRUMP’S FIRST YEAR: A DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
It is now a year into the Trump presidency, and, shutdown crisis aside, the business of government goes on more or less as usual. Most of the planet remains at peace, and the administration’s handful of accomplishments — including a tax bill, the rollback of some regulations and a conservative Supreme Court justice — are pretty standard fare for a Republican White House.

Were President Trump’s critics, then, overwrought in their predictions of doom? PJ Media’s Roger Simon has declared that Never Trumpers (like me) should apologize for their apostasy and get into the trenches to fight the advancing leftist hordes. New York Times columnist David Brooks, although still reluctant in his defense of Trump, suggests that were it not for the president’s bizarre tweets, “we’d see a White House that is briskly pursuing its goals.”

This is nonsense. Trump’s presidency has done daily damage not only to the Republican Party and the conservative movement but, more important, to our constitutional system of government. The president is eroding the unwritten norms that serve as the civic girders beneath our political and legal infrastructure. And his foreign policy, insofar as he has one, is diminishing our global standing and jeopardizing our security.

It is sometimes difficult, in the wind tunnel of noise created by Trump’s most hysterical critics, to distinguish what is merely appalling from what is genuinely dangerous. Not everything the administration has done is wrong or disastrous — it has even gotten a few things right, such as the strike last year against Syria. But it is clear that Trump has already left so much destruction in his wake that it may be hard to put the pieces together again after he’s gone.

The superficial appearance of normalcy in the rest of the government is not a sign of a robust democracy, but of confusion and a lack of direction. Because Trump does not have any kind of vision or even a basic set of policy preferences, and because he has no tolerance for the boring details of governing (including staffing important political appointments), the bureaucracy has remained mostly on auto­pilot in the past year. This situation will not last, and it should be no consolation to realize that potentially awful outcomes have been averted not by statecraft and prudent administration, but by inertia and incompetence.

Imagine, for example, if Michael Flynn had somehow escaped his tangle of Russia problems, and he and Steve Bannon, aided by Fox News television personality K.T. McFarland, had spent a year running National Security Council meetings. These people left the White House not, as we might have hoped, because our system of oversight and constitutional government worked, but because of their own astonishing missteps. Trump supporters who point out the increasingly functional National Security Council conveniently forget that it was cobbled together when the previous council — the one Trump actually wanted — imploded.
Yes, John Kelly, as White House chief of staff, and H.R. McMaster, as national security adviser, and Jim Mattis at the Defense Department — all active or retired generals — have managed to impose some order. But this, too, has come at a cost. It is one of the greatest corrosions of our system under Trump that conservatives and liberals alike have expressed relief that the generals are running things. This is a deeply anti-republican sentiment, a squandering of a precious heritage of civilian control of the military.

Meanwhile, Trump has made good on the prediction that he would lead the conservative movement to disgrace, and he has gravely — perhaps even mortally — wounded the Republican Party. His endorsement of an accused child molester in Alabama’s Senate race coaxed a final humiliation of evangelical and “family values” conservatives that was a long time coming — and for many of us who are more moderate conservatives, our only regret is that it didn’t happen sooner. Yet the Trump effect has rippled further, attaching a repulsive hypocrisy to anything involving the word “conservative.” People who once insisted on religious beliefs and a sterling character as paramount in their evaluation of a president now wave away alleged payoffs to porn stars; fiscal conservatives now blithely applaud the addition of $1 trillion in debt; foreign policy hawks now mumble quietly as the president draws moral equivalences between the United States and Russia.

The consequent damage Trump is doing to the Republican Party should worry liberals as well as conservatives. The point of political parties is to aggregate interests and soften the edges of the extremes in order to find common cause to make policy. Without viable parties, alienated and discouraged citizens withdraw from politics, and only the most motivated and aggrieved voters show up for the primaries and conventions. This is already happening in the GOP. Whatever principled origins there were to the tea party movement, for example, it fell prey to the most angry and extreme elements within it, resulting in the emergence of some truly repellent congressional candidates (think Indiana’s Richard Mourdock, who said, “even when life begins in the horrible situation of rape, that is something that God intended to happen”) and later contributing to the rise of Trump.

Democrats should not celebrate these trends: If the GOP ceases to be a sensible opposition party, if it can no longer provide the constraining influence of a governing alternative, the Democratic Party will be overtaken by extremists as well. And if both parties become captured by their fringes, America will hurl itself between far right and far left, like a dysfunctional parliament instead of a system of divided powers that has been a model of stability for nearly 2 1 / 2 centuries. A boat can be tossed from side to side only so many times before it is swamped.

Even more troubling than the effect on any one party, however, is the damage Trump is doing to our civic life. Here, I do not mean the president’s constant vulgarity, although it is shocking how accustomed we have allowed ourselves to become to behavior that would have appalled any decent American even a decade or so ago. No, the more significant concern is that Trump has convinced millions of Americans that governing the United States is not a serious business that needs to be undertaken by serious men and women.

Every president, whatever his virtues, has had his terrible flaws: from Nixon’s brooding darkness to Carter’s dour naivete, from Reagan’s sunny cluelessness to Obama’s lightweight self-regard, from Bush 41’s disconnected privilege to his son’s smirky frat-boy mien. But all of them understood the gravity of the job, and in turn, they made us feel it, too. We made fun of them, we criticized them, we immortalized them as “Saturday Night Live” caricatures. But they were presidents, and we knew the burden that rested on their shoulders, including responsibility for the safety of not just Americans but billions of other human lives.

Trump, however, has turned the presidency into a spectacle. Important matters of public policy disappear the moment he drops a curse word at a meeting, like a naughty child at a birthday party, or gets ahold of a cellphone and tweets something outrageous, like a vandal on the loose with a can of spray paint.

Some of Trump’s supporters defend these reduced expectations of the Oval Office as a welcome diminution of the imperial presidency. And yet Trump is the most imperial president in modern history, at least if measured by his status as a celebrity or a god-emperor among his supporters. To his base, Trump is a conquering hero “triggering the libs,” a middle finger to the globalists and the intellectuals, a source of anxiety to those effete Europeans who cheered Barack Obama in Berlin.
He is everything, in fact, except our chief magistrate and the head of the executive branch of our government. Rather than feeling bound by the Constitution “to take care that the laws are faithfully executed,” Trump sits atop a structure of laws and norms he attacks daily. Courts? How dare they impede his executive ukazes. The Justice Department, the FBI, the CIA? Disasters. All part of the “deep state.” And the First Amendment? An annoyance that needs to be cleared up by rewriting libel laws to protect those in power from a free press.

Journalist Salena Zito’s formula for Trump — that his opponents take him literally but not seriously, and that his supporters take him seriously but not literally — may have been true during the campaign, but a year later, there is no evidence that anyone, at home or abroad, takes Trump seriously.

And yet, this is a paradox: If Trump is so unserious, so inconsequential, how can his damage be so lasting?

The answer is simple. Wrecking things is easier than repairing them. Spending capital is easier than accumulating it. Chaos is easy; order is hard. It takes architects years to learn how to build a house, while ignorant scavengers can strip it bare and destroy it in hours.

Trump has deprived the presidency of its majesty, its gravity and its ability to inspire. In doing so, he has distilled the role of executive power to its elemental minimum as an almost purely destructive force. When Trump talks policy, he is ignored. But he is still the most powerful man in the world, so there is no avoiding him when he seems bent on creating havoc.

Trump’s tweets and off-the-cuff remarks have blown up a summit with Britain, deepened a standoff with North Korea and precipitated a coming constitutional crisis within our government. It’s all hilarious reality show stuff that doesn’t matter — right up until it does.

This tendency is especially dangerous in foreign affairs, where Trump is laying down a legacy that will bedevil future presidents and endanger Americans for years to come. Trump taunts North Korea, and the North Koreans test more missiles. He pulls America out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and China steps in. He withdraws from the Paris climate accords — a purely symbolic act if ever there was one — and instead of the United States getting a “better deal,” France and the other Europeans decide we should be ignored.

If Trump’s warnings to our enemies mean very little, they mean nothing at all when it comes to reassuring nervous allies. He talks to NATO and manages to ignore Article 5. He backtracks and promises that America is a reliable ally — and then adds that we’re as reliable as the last protection payment we’ve received. He’s turning America from the guarantor of a system of international peace and economic cooperation into the spoiler nation, a role once played by Russia and China, and a reputation not easily shed once it sticks.

Perhaps most dispiriting, Trump has shattered the notion, at home and abroad, that no matter how partisan our politics, no matter how crazy our elections, every two to four years the result is a group of relatively stable adults who know what they’re doing.

All of this means the next president will have to rebuild the office almost from the ground up. Americans will have to learn once again to take the presidency seriously. Congress will have to return to the assumption that the president understands — and cares about — policy. International alliances will have to be healed. Foreign enemies will have to be reminded that the word of the commander in chief matters. An entire branch of government will have to be reestablished at home and abroad.

Will Americans and their next president be up to the task? Three more years of this, and any such restoration of the republic may be out of reach.
_______________________
Tom Nichols is a professor at the Naval War College and the Harvard Extension School and the author of “The Death of Expertise.”

Twitter: @RadioFreeTom

#Trump #POTUS #MAGA #USA #UnitedStates #politics #politicalsatire #GOP
TRUMP’S FIRST YEAR: A DAMAGE ASSESSMENT It is now a year into the Trump presidency, and, shutdown crisis aside, the business of government goes on more or less as usual. Most of the planet remains at peace, and the administration’s handful of accomplishments — including a tax bill, the rollback of some regulations and a conservative Supreme Court justice — are pretty standard fare for a Republican White House. Were President Trump’s critics,
trump-inaugural.jpg
AlansLGBTautismsite


Trump administration amasses striking anti-LGBT record in first year
© Getty Images
At the 2016 Republican Convention, in response to a massacre/terrorist attack by an armed assailant that killed 49 mostly LGBT, Latino club-goers at the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando, candidate Donald Trump vowed, “As your president, I will do everything in my power to protect our LGBTQ citizens from the violence and oppression of a hateful foreign ideology. Believe me.”

Even though the Republican Party platform denounced sexual orientation and gender identity nondiscrimination laws as reflecting “an ideology alien to America’s history and traditions,” Trump’s comments were hailed as historically pro-LGBT for a Republican convention. Once in office, however, the Trump administration has followed the lead of the GOP rather than Trump himself, amassing a striking record of executive branch actions that strip LGBT people of nondiscrimination protections.



Most alarmingly, President Trump and Attorney General Sessions have taken every opportunity to promote discrimination against LGBT people in health care, social services, private business, employment, and state- and federally-funded government services under the guise of free exercise of religion.


This week, the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Civil Rights publicly announced a new “Conscience and Religious Freedom Division.”

The Washington Post reported that the language describing the new office is “broad” and that healthcare experts believe the new office is likely to defend those who refuse to treat “transgender patients or those seeking to transition to the opposite sex.” Making matters even worse is that Trump has successfully nominated numerous judges throughout the federal court system who support these policies, including Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch.

In 2018, discrimination equals freedom — Orwell would be pleased.

Some of Trump’s anti-LGBT actions are symbolically important, like not declaring June LGBT Pride Month, as Presidents Obama and Clinton did, and not mentioning gay and bisexual men or transgender women—groups disproportionately burdened by HIV here and globally—in his World AIDS Day declaration. But as documented in a new policy brief by The Fenway Institute, most are much more serious. Trump has rolled back the collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data on surveys, which was expanded under the previous administration.

His administration has taken numerous actions to undermine the Affordable Care Act, which cut rates of insurance among lesbian, gay and bisexual people in half. It also helped many people living with HIV access insurance who previously could not get it and sharply reduced racial/ethnic disparities in health insurance coverage, a key driver of racial/ethnic health disparities.

Trump has failed to appoint a Director of the White House Office of National AIDS Policy for the first time since President Clinton created it, and the Centers for Disease Control put the kibosh on using seven terms in descriptions of the agency’s work, including “transgender” and “evidence-based.”

Trump’s budget proposal would gut funding for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program and the CDC. A proposed $1.1 billion cut to global HIV prevention and treatment would cause thousands of adults and children to lose treatment, and many would die. Progress cutting new global HIV infections in half over the past 15 years would be reversed.

Trump has also reversed American leadership to promote an end to anti-LGBT persecution around the world. President George W. Bush’s administration included anti-LGBT persecution in its State Department’s country reports, and President Obama’s State Department promoted LGBT equality as a goal of U.S. foreign policy.

The Trump administration removed pro-LGBT content from the department’s website, and does not prioritize human rights. Over the past year several governments — Tanzania, Chechnya, and Indonesia — have unleashed campaigns of persecution against gay men and LGBT people.

Candidate Trump promised to protect LGBT people against another terrorist attack fueled by fanatical, intolerant distortions of Islam. Yet as president, he is enacting policies pushed by conservative Christian Americans that are causing great harm to LGBT people, and that many would argue distort the meaning of Christianity.

These policies represent a major threat to the health and well-being of LGBT Americans. They are likely to increase minority stress and reduce access to health care. And they are out of step with the American public, 69 percent of whom support LGBT nondiscrimination laws covering employment, housing, and public accommodations.

Sean Cahill, PhD, is Director of Health Policy Research at the Fenway Institute and lead author of “One year in, Trump Administration amasses striking anti-LGBT record.”

TAGS DONALD TRUMP HEALTHCARE AND THE LGBT COMMUNITY LGBT RIGHTS IN THE UNITED STATES EQUALITY CALIFORNIA PRESIDENCY OF DONALD TRUMP

LOAD COMMENTS (151)

Sponsored Content
Business owners: How setting up a website can be easy
Business owners: How setting up a website can be easy
VERISIGN
Egg customers are being refunded thousands!
Egg customers are being refunded thousands!
Consumer Refunds
Which Web Address is Available for You?
Which Web Address is Available for You?
VERISIGN
Sunday Brunch in turmoil as Philip Glenister STORMS OFF set during cooking segmentSunday Brunch in turmoil as Philip Glenister STORMS OFF set during cooking segment
Sunday Brunch in turmoil as Philip Glenister STORMS…
The Express
Rio Ferdinand speaks out for first time on Kate Wright romance: 'I'm really happy'Rio Ferdinand speaks out for first time on Kate Wright romance: 'I'm really happy'
Rio Ferdinand speaks out for first time on Kate Wright romance:…
The Express
(2018) Top 5 Trusted Antivirus Providers. You won’t believe #1.
(2018) Top 5 Trusted Antivirus Providers. You won’t believe #1.
My Antivirus Review
Recommended by


Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
TheHill.com

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban
TheHill.com

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'
TheHill.com

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
TheHill.com

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban
TheHill.com

More videos:

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
Most Popular
1
#TrumpShutdown becomes top...
A hashtag linking a potential government shutdown to President Trump...
578 SHARES
2
Senate rejects funding bill, ...
Senators voted late Friday to reject a House-passed bill that would have...
430 SHARES

3
GOP senators: DACA bill to get...
GOP senators said early Saturday morning that they've gotten a promise...
186 SHARES
4
Trump's comments blaming Obama for...
President Trump’s comments about the 2013 government shutdown during the...
174 SHARES
5
Trump budget chief predicts...
White House Office of Management and Budget Director Mick Mulvaney...
137 SHARES
6
GOP senator amid looming shutdown...
Sen. John Kennedy (R-La.) blasted Congress on Friday as a government...
131 SHARES
7
DNC chair responds to McConnell: '...
Democratic National Committee Chairman Tom Perez on Friday responded to a...
117 SHARES
8
GOP reps demand release of '...
They say the classified report reveals political bias in the FBI's Russia...
115 SHARES
9
Dems claim Trump walked away from...
"There was virtually a deal, a comprehensive agreement," said Sen. Richard...
112 SHARES
10
Fierce battle erupts over...
A battle erupted Friday over a push by Republican lawmakers to release a...
110 SHARES
11
House rejects Democratic effort to...
The House on Friday once again rejected an effort by Rep. Al Green (D-...
106 SHARES
12
Live coverage: Federal government...
A partial shutdown of the federal government is set to begin, with the...
105 SHARES
13
McConnell takes hard line after...
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) ripped Democrats for...
95 SHARES
14
Omarosa may have secretly taped...
Former Trump staffer Omarosa Manigault Newman might have secretly recorded...
82 SHARES
15
Schumer says he offered to discuss...
Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) said early Saturday that...
73 SHARES
LOAD MORE



Rate President Donald Trump on His Job Performance


Deutsche Bank Looking Into 'Suspicious' Kushner-Related Transactions


Tom Petty Died Due to Accidental Drug Overdose


Trump's Top 12 Contenders to Replace Rex Tillerson


Mattis: US Military Puts 'Great Power Competition' at Heart of Strategy


Senate Democrats Derail Bill to Avert Shutdown


US Flu Season Gets Worse, Has 'Lot More Steam' Than Expected


Black NASA Astronaut Is Replaced in Sudden Crew Shuffle


New Danger: Salt Pouring Into Public Waterways


Trump Signs Bill to Reauthorize Surveillance Law

Powered by
TheHill.com
Just In...
The danger of diagnosing mental iIllness through the media
OPINION
— 3S AGO
CDC to cut back disease work in foreign countries: report
HEALTHCARE
— 1M 46S AGO
Trump budget chief predicts shutdown deal within 24 hours
ADMINISTRATION
— 11M 59S AGO
Looming decision by Trump administration on Puerto Rico has implications for taxpayers
OPINION
— 14M 4S AGO
Poll: Satisfaction with economy reaches 17-year high
BLOG BRIEFING ROOM
— 21M 25S AGO
Twitter finds over 1,000 new Russian-linked accounts
TECHNOLOGY
— 22M 40S AGO
LA Times publisher put on unpaid leave over sexual misconduct accusations
BALLOT BOX
— 23M 18S AGO
Trump hails 'excellent' meeting with Schumer on shutdown
ADMINISTRATION
— 25M 23S AGO
VIEW ALL

Trump budget chief predicts shutdown deal within 24 hours
BY JORDAN FABIAN - 01/19/18 05:48 PM EST
0
Trump budget chief predicts shutdown deal within 24 hours
© Greg Nash
White House Office of Management and Budget Director Mick Mulvaney predicted Congress will reach a deal to avoid a government shutdown within the next day.

"I think there's a deal in the next 24 hours,” he said during an interview on CNN.

The government will shut down if Congress does not pass a spending bill before midnight Friday, but Mulvaney said that is not much of a hard deadline because federal offices will not reopen until Monday.


“I look at it more in terms of what gets done before offices are supposed to open on Monday,” he said. “And I think you’re going to see a deal.”

The budget chief said President Trump would not leave Washington for his planned weekend trip to South Florida until the spending deadlock is broken.

"He's not leaving until this is finished,” Mulvaney told reporters after his CNN appearance.

The White House has voiced optimism about the prospects of averting a shutdown, even as the outcome of spending talks on Capitol Hill remains uncertain as the deadline approaches.

Trump hailed an "excellent" meeting with Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) earlier Friday and declared progress toward resolving the impasse.

Schumer, however, sounded less optimistic, saying the two sides still have a “good number of disagreements” on immigration and spending, even though progress was made.

Mulvaney’s tone shifted from earlier Friday, when put the odds of a shutdown at 50-50 and claimed that Democrats should take the blame if it does.


TAGS CHARLES SCHUMER MICK MULVANEY DONALD TRUMP SHUTDOWN


Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
TheHill.com

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban
TheHill.com

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'
TheHill.com

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
TheHill.com

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban
TheHill.com

More videos:

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses

Trump pushes Senate to vote on 20-week abortion ban

McConnell: Democrats holding country 'hostage'

Trump praises Apple for hiring, bonuses
Most Popular
1
GOP reps demand release of '...
They say the classified report reveals political bias in the FBI's Russia...
1,014 SHARES
2
Schumer after Trump meeting:...
Senate Democratic Leader Charles Schumer (N.Y.) returned to the Capitol...
773 SHARES
3
Live coverage: Federal government...
A shutdown of the federal government is set to start in just a few hours, ...
770 SHARES
4
Russian Twitter accounts pushing...
The "ReleaseTheMemo" hashtag has increased by 286,700 percent over the...
600 SHARES
5
Democrats, give moderate GOP...
Part of the reason Democrats’ message has fallen short with Republican...
472 SHARES
6
Omarosa may have secretly taped...
Former Trump staffer Omarosa Manigault Newman might have secretly recorded...
466 SHARES
7
Trump budget chief predicts...
White House Office of Management and Budget Director Mick Mulvaney...
356 SHARES
8
House rejects Democratic effort to...
The House on Friday once again rejected an effort by Rep. Al Green (D-...
337 SHARES
9
DNC chair responds to McConnell: '...
Democratic National Committee Chairman Tom Perez on Friday responded to a...
298 SHARES
10
Trump hails 'excellent' meeting...
President Trump declared Friday he made progress toward averting a...
288 SHARES
11
The Trump Presidency: Year One
One year ago Saturday, Donald J. Trump was sworn in as the 45th president...
255 SHARES
12
Trump-state Dems introduce bill to...
Five Democratic senators from states won by President Trump in the 2016...
238 SHARES
13
Republicans divided over shorter...
A push to pass a shorter stopgap funding bill is dividing Senate...
236 SHARES
14
What happens if the government...
Federal agencies are bracing for a government shutdown as Congress fights...
208 SHARES
15
People flocking to low-tax states...
States that keep taxes low and provide a competitive business climate...
203 SHARES
LOAD MORE


Rate President Donald Trump on His Job Performance


Trump's Top 12 Contenders to Replace Rex Tillerson


Black NASA Astronaut Is Replaced in Sudden Crew Shuffle


Senate Democrats Derail Bill to Avert Shutdown


Tom Petty Died Due to Accidental Drug Overdose


Deutsche Bank Looking Into 'Suspicious' Kushner-Related Transactions


New Danger: Salt Pouring Into Public Waterways


Mattis: US Military Puts 'Great Power Competition' at Heart of Strategy


US Flu Season Gets Worse, Has 'Lot More Steam' Than Expected


Trump Signs Bill to Reauthorize Surveillance Law

Powered by
DON'T MISS A BRIEF. SIGN UP FOR OUR DAILY EMAIL.
YOUR EMAIL
SIGN UP
TheHill.com
News
SENATE
HOUSE
CAMPAIGN
ADMINISTRATION
REGULATION
MEDIA
BRIEFING ROOM
LATINO
POLLS
12:30 REPORT
FLOOR ACTION
IN THE KNOW
SUNDAY TALK SHOWS
MORE
Policy
DEFENSE
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
FINANCE
HEALTHCARE
TECHNOLOGY
INTERNATIONAL
TRANSPORTATION
CYBERSECURITY
NATIONAL SECURITY
MORE
Video
LATEST
DEFENSE
ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
FINANCE
HEALTHCARE
TECHNOLOGY
TRANSPORTATION
INTERNATIONAL
CYBERSECURITY
NATIONAL SECURITY
SUNDAY SHOWS
EVENTS
MORE
Opinion
BRENT BUDOWSKY
COLUMNISTS
CONGRESS BLOG
CONTRIBUTORS
MORE
TheHill.com
PRIVACY POLICY
TERMS & CONDITIONS
CONTACT
SUBSCRIPTIONS
ADVERTISE
Resources
THE HILL APPS
MOBILE SITE
PEOPLE
RSS
Contributors
BECOME A CONTRIBUTOR
Other Areas
SPECIAL REPORTS
GALLERIES
CLASSIFIEDS
JOBS
THE HILL 1625 K STREET, NW SUITE 900 WASHINGTON DC 20006 | 202-628-8500 TEL | 202-628-8503 FAX

THE CONTENTS OF THIS SITE ARE ©2018 CAPITOL HILL PUBLISHING CORP., A SUBSIDIARY OF NEWS COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

The Hill - covering Congress, Politics, Political Campaigns and Capitol Hill
Jane Wallace
Why Do Humans Hate Immigrants? More Importantly, How Can We Get Over It?
August 30, 2017 by DEREK BERES
Article Image
A sign warning motorists to beware of people crossing the road is seen on Interstate 5, just North of the U.S.-Mexico border May 13, 2006, in San Ysidro, California. (Photo by Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images)
Two groups were asked to lie. One had to speak the untruth; the other write it down. On the way out each participant was offered a cleaning product. As you might expect, the speakers chose mouthwash, while the scribes went for hand soap.

Why do we confuse a moral transgression with a physical action? Neuroendocrinologist Robert Sapolsky believes humans are more easily tricked than we might believe. In this case he’d label it a case of co-optation more than confusion, though the latter does stem from the former.

To understand this behavior we have to investigate the insular cortex. In Sapolsky’s latest book, Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, he calls it an honorary part of our brain’s prefrontal cortex. The insula, for shorthand, is involved in consciousness and plays numerous roles: maintaining homeostasis, perception, cognitive functioning, motor control, and interpersonal experience.

Among other functions, the insula plays an important role in processing emotions and helping decide what actions we take. Importantly, it often ‘talks’ with our amygdala, the region that helps process memories and emotions. The amygdala is also implicated in our fight-flight-freeze mechanism. When something is off it readies our body for action (or inaction).

Most of the time we’re balanced. As homeostasis is the system that regulates our body temperature and hormonal concentrations, it makes sense that how we’re feeling physically is related to how we’re feeling emotionally. The two are inseparable. So if something makes us feel “off,” that we “feel” it and “think” it simultaneously is simply how our body and brain communicate.

Now let’s think about one particular feeling. The insula plays a specific role in disgust. As Sapolsky told Big Think earlier this year, when you bite into rancid food or smell something putrid, a chain reaction occurs: you gag, become nauseous, and sometimes throw up. This is an evolutionary design, a “great way to not get poisoned.” As he writes in Behave,

The insula not only prompts the stomach to purge itself of toxic food; it prompts the stomach to purge the reality of a nightmarish event. The distance between the symbolic message and the meaning disappears.

You’d expect every animal to purge toxins. It’s how animals avoid death. Purging a toxic thought is another thing entirely. Here’s where it gets more interesting. Humans are a “symbolic species,” Sapolsky says, which has led to “all sorts of interesting improvisations.”

One of these improvisations is the concept of moral transgression. Sapolsky spent twenty-five years in the field studying baboons. When one does something bad to another, he doesn’t perform a ritual to ask for forgiveness, and he certainly doesn’t sit around for weeks mulling over his poor ethical decision.

Humans developed a different sensibility, one that involved the cooptation of the insular cortex. Or, as Sapolsky puts it, the part of our brain that controls our tongue is also responsible for our morals. This is apparent in the language we use when describing how we feel about a moral transgression: I feel sick to my stomach. It leaves a bad taste in my mouth. I need to wash my hands of having done that.

Whether we’re physically or morally disgusted our insular cortex plays a role. This leads to another reality, one we’re witnessing on a daily basis. When someone else—say, an immigrant or person of another religious faith—dresses differently, eats different foods, or prays in a different manner, hello insula. We confuse “different" with “wrong.”

We like to think of ourselves as more evolved than the baboons Sapolsky spent countless hours gazing at. In many ways we are; evolution didn’t “give” us opposable thumbs for nothing. But what we call the unconscious plays a more important role than we often give it credit for. Consciousness is just the protruding tip of a very large iceberg.

As Sapolsky puts it, in the fifty thousand years since we started becoming a symbolic species we haven’t evolved all that much. Nervous systems take time to mature. Evolutionary speaking, maybe we’re teens, though some still act as infants. They bad. We good. Sadly, this explains so much.

Research matters. If you read the literature you know that why you think you’re entering a study and the actual reason are often worlds apart. If you knew exactly what was being studied your behavior would change. The explanation is often a cover for the details.

Details such as the difference between sitting in a hard or soft chair. If you meet someone while sitting on an unforgiving substance you’re more likely to label them as “hard.” You’ll have less of a connection. Same goes for hot versus chilly mugs: Wow, is that person cold. No warmth to them. Research also shows that you connect with someone better if they mimic your pantomimes. Fold your arms during conversation with a stranger. If they follow suit, you’re more likely to trust them.

The insula protects us against life-threatening dangers. With moral transgressions the dangers don't actually need to threaten our lives for our insula to jump into overdrive. Sapolsky points to a study in which subjects did or did not read an article about airborne bacteria. Both groups then read a history article calling the United States an organism.

Those who read about scary bacteria before thinking about the United States as an organism were then more likely to express negative view about immigration.

We’ve long been locked in this Us-Them mentality. It’s an integral part of our biological inheritance. And it’s not going to go away, regardless of how highly we think of ourselves. Or maybe it will, during our next upgrade fifty thousands years from now. Geological and neurological time laugh at our timelines, though. We will always relates to Us’s and take stock of Them’s, regardless of how much the Us is dangerous and the Them is supportive. It’s called politics, and we have our own nightmarish events to contend with.

This is the reason the Joe Arpaio pardon has brought about so many comments of disgust and disbelief, why Arpaio’s rants against immigrants received so many affirmative cheers. Us and Them is not relegated to skin color or ethnicity. It’s a constant dance. I recently read an article by a woman who didn’t know her husband was a climate change skeptic until months into their marriage, even though she was working as a climate engineer. They are divorced now. How quickly an Us becomes a Them.

And yet. This very system is responsible for why we feel someone else’s pain. In his book (and this Big Think video) Sapolsky talks about the “love hormone,” oxytocin, which was treated like a miracle for its role in making us bond and cuddle. True, with Us’s. The same hormone makes us more likely to turn our nose in disgust at a Them. This is one of many cases of chemistry interacting with environment. Or, as he writes,

Biologically, intense love and intense hate aren’t opposites. The opposite of each is indifference.

What matters is action. As he reiterates throughout Behave, feeling empathy does not necessarily translate into acting bravely. It can be a catalyst for doing so, yet we often confuse feeling and action, which in a selfish twist makes us feel better without our having really done anything. We’ve reached a point where such selfishness isn’t sustainable. Every day we see the consequences.

The insular cortex is, as Sapolsky writes, an honorary part of the frontal cortex. And that is where transformative actions are possible:

The frontal cortex makes you do the harder thing when it’s the right thing to do.

The insula in part led to moral transgressions; now we must co-opt it again. As Sapolsky concludes, do the hard thing enough times and it’s no longer the hard thing. It’s amazing how much easier things could be right now, if only we realized the Them's are a lot more like Us than we think.

--

Derek is the author of Whole Motion: Training Your Brain and Body For Optimal Health. Based in Los Angeles he is working on a new book about spiritual consumerism. Stay in touch on Facebook and Twitter.
William LaSalle
Nebraskans could vote on medical cannabis under constitutional amendment proposed in Legislature
Sen. Anna Wishart of Lincoln introduced Legislative Resolution 293CA on Thursday, saying Nebraskans who find that cannabis eases their pain and suffering should not be forced across state lines or
William LaSalle
Destroying American Farmers and the persuit of Happiness in the United States.

Or the horribly rich, the damn Lobbyists, and the Damn Politicians.

The truth is a sharp stick in the eye to our AMA, our FDA, our EPA, our Politicians and their criminal Lobbyists, and our damn Media.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/drug-overdose-deaths-heroin-opioid-prescription-painkillers-more-than-guns/


https://www.homebrewing.org/How-to-Brew_ep_31-1.html


https://www.britannica.com/event/Prohibition-United-States-history-1920-1933

Although the temperance movement, which was widely supported, had succeeded in bringing about this legislation, millions of Americans were willing to drink liquor (distilled spirits) illegally, which gave rise to bootlegging (the illegal production and sale of liquor) and speakeasies (illegal, secretive drinking establishments), both of which were capitalized upon by organized crime. As a result, the Prohibition era also is remembered as a period of gangsterism, characterized by competition and violent turf battles between criminal gangs.

Is there any way to get the truth from our FDA, CDC, AMA, Drug Corporations, Politicians, and our Media ?

No.

How Lobbyists and the Huge Corporations making Synthentic Cloth and our horribly corrupt Senate and House in Washington, DC destroyed the Industry of Natural Cloth making, the rope industry, and the Hemp Industry in the United States.

Marijuana was a helpful herb in the Chinese Medical books for thousands of years before the Huge Corporations and their Lobbyists and the Politicians on their Payroll in Washington, DC decided to label it a dangerous drug.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZvFE53JzDk

We ignore history and keep Hemp and Marijuana illegal.

Marijuana should never have been listed as a Schedule 1 or Dangerous Drug.


Our FDA apporoved an Opiate that kills people to use as a substitute for Marijuana.

Prescription Drugs, Alchol, and Tobacco kill people, Marijuana Doesn't, the substitutes are 100 times worse than Marijuana.


How long have our Senate and House been horribly corrupt ?


How far back are you willing to look ?


Sula Io: What is hemp? Just another word for marijuana?




Yeah, and that's one of the things that happened in 1937. Cannabis Hemp was one of history's most widely used plants. Tincture of Cannabis was the basis for almost every patent medicine prior to the discovery of aspirin. Hemp was used for rope, twine, and cloth. Sailing ships were loaded with hemp. The word "canvas" is derived from "cannabis", because that's what canvas was. Sails were made of hemp because salt water deteriorated cotton. Old sails were made into wagon covers and ultimately original Levi's Jeans. And the pressed oil from hemp seeds was used for paints and varnishes. Everyone knew what hemp was. But nobody knew what marijuana was.

So we have an elite group of special interests dominated by Du Pont petrochemical company and it's major financial backer and key political ally, Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon. Mellon was a banker who took over Gulf Oil Corporation. In 1913, Henry Ford opened his first auto assembly line, and Gulf Oil opened its first drive-in gas station. In 1919, with ethanol fuel poised to comptete with gasoline, Alchohol Prohibition descended on the nation. Lucky Mellon. When President Harding made him Secretary of the Treasury, he was considered the richest man in America. In the 1920's, Mellon arranged for his bank to loan his buddies as Du Pont money to take over General Motors. Du Pont had developed new gasoline additives and the sulfate and sulfite process that made trees into paper.

Du Pont was developing cellophane, nylon, and dacron from from fossil fuels. Du Pont held the patents on many synthetics and became a leader in the development of paint, rayon, synthetic rubber, plastics, chemicals, photographic film, insecticides and agricultural chemicals.

From the Du Pont 1937 Annual Report we find a clue to what started to happen next: "The revenue raising power of government may be converted into an instrument for forcing acceptance of sudden new ideas of industrial and social reoganization".


William Randolph Hearst. Hearst's company was a major consumer of the cheap tree-pulp paper that had replaced hemp paper in the late 19th century. The Hearst Corporation was also a major logging company, and produced Du Pont's chemical-drenched tree pulp paper, which yellowed and fell apart after a short time. Fueled by the advertising sold to the petrochemical industries, Hearst Newspapers were also known for their sensationalist stories. Hearst despised poor people, black people, chinese, hindus, and all other minorities. Most of all he hated Mexicans. Pancho Villa's cannabis-smoking troops had reclaimed some 800,000 acres of prime timberland from Hearst in the name of the mexican peasants. And all of the low-quality paper the company planned to make by deforesting it's vast timber holdings were in danger of being replaced by low-cost, high quality paper made from hemp.

Hearst had always supported any kind of prohibition, and now he wanted cannabis included in every anti-narcotics bill. Never mind that cannabis wasn't a narcotic. Facts weren't important. The important thing was to have it completely removed from society, doctors, and industry.


Around 1920 or so, a new word arose - "Marihuana". Through screaming headlines and horror stories,"marihuana" was blamed for murderous rampages by blacks and mexicans. Hearst continued to use his power of the press to impress on his readers the dangers of the "marihuana" plant.

1935 the Treasury Department began secretly drafting a bill called The Marihuana Tax Act.

Back to Marijuana Prohibition ?

The Treasury Department's general counsul Herman Oliphant was put in charge of writing something that could get past both Congress and the Court disguised as a tax revenue bill. Congress wasn't all that interested in the matter, seeing as all the information they had to work with was what was provided to them by Anslinger. They deliberately collected horror stories on the evils of marihuana pulled primarily from the Hearst newspapers, called Anslinger's Gore Files. Crimes that had never happened at all were being attributed to marihuana.

So, in 1937, Anslinger went before a poorly attended committee hearing and called for a total ban on marihuana. He stated under oath "This drug is entirely the monster Hyde, the harmful effects of which cannot be measured". Bureaucrats planned the hearings to avoid the discussion of the full House and presented the measure in the guise of a tax revenue bill brought to the six member House Ways and Means Committee, chaired by Du Pont ally Robert Doughton of North Carolina.

All competition from hemp had been outlawed.

This bypassed the House without further hearings and passed it over to the Senate Finance Committee, controlled by another ally, Prentiss Brown of Michigan, where it was rubber stamped into law. Once on the books, Anslinger would "administer" the licensing process to make sure that no more commercial hemp was ever grown in the United States. Clinton Hesterm assistant general counsel for the Department of the Treasury, explained to the House Committee " The leading newspapers of the United States have recognized the seriousness of this problem and have advocated federal legislation to control.. marihuana...The marijuana cigarette is one of the most insidious of all forms of dope, largely because of the failure of the public to understand its fatal qualities."

At the last minute, a few pro-hemp witnesses showed up. Most of the confusion came from the using of the word "marihuana". Most people had no idea that "marihuana", merely a slang word taken from a drinking song celebrating Pancho Villa's victory, "La Cucaracha",

And yet the burden of this bill is placed heavily on the doctors and pharmacists of the country, and may I say very heavily - most heavily, possibly of all - on the farmers of this country... We can not understand yet ... why this bill should have been prepared in secret for two years without any initiative, even to the profession, that it was being prepared ... no medical man would identify this bill with a medicine until he read it through, because marijuana is not a drug, ... simply a name given cannabis."

Representative Fred Vinson of Kentucky was asked to summarize the AMA's position. He lied to the effect that the medical group's legislative counsul (Woodward) "Not only gave this measure full support, but also the approval from the AMA."

The act passed without a roll call vote. Now we can see why it was prepared in secret - passage of the Act put all hemp industries firmly under the control of the very special interests that most benefited from its repression over the years - prohibition police and bureaucrats working in collusion with the petrochemical companies, the timber companies, the alcohol and tobacco industries, the pharmaceutical drug companies, and today, the urine testing, property seizure, police and prison industries.



It is much cheaper to make canvas and paper out of hemp.

Lies, lies, lies, more lies, and Treason.

The more things change the more they remain the same.

Our Senate and House at work.

http://hemporganic.com/whyhemp.html


In our world you can share love with each person you meet with each word and with each action or do something evil.

Love and music are the magic in our world.

You chose to spread love or hate, that has always been your only choice and the only choice for each nation.

If l life fills you with hate, your religious and political leaders are leading you in the wrong direction.

Nicotine is toxic and kills millions of people a year, yet Tobacco is legal and Hemp is illegal, only because of our horribly rich good for nothing liars and parasites in our Senate and House in Washington, DC. Only because of lies from Doctors, Scientists, and Lobbyists in the United States.

The Marijuana Probition should end.

You only have to do a little research to find out everything from our Media and our Politicians is lies and it always was..


A company producing a Marijuana Product should be taxed at the same rate a Tobacco Company would be taxed for a like product, Tobacco is 1,000 times more dangerous, some of the Marijuana Substitutes sold in our stores in the United States are more toxic than Tobacco.

In 1850 a guy committed murder with nicotine he concentrated from tobacco leaves.

A teacher and one of his students worked out a way to detect organic poisons and worked with the courts to bring the guy to justice. We own chemical Forensic science to them.

If you like CSI you should know that story.

Tobacco Kills, Marijuana doesn't kill people.

If you have the handy NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Chemicals you know Nicotine is more hazardous then Arsenic or Cyanide.

If you don't have it, it is online.

Nicotine is listed as a Pesticide or Insecticide in many books on Toxins. Nicotine is ok for Human Use and Marijuana isn't ?

Our FDA sucks




Tobacco Kills, Marijuana doesn't kill people.

If you have the handy NIOSH Pocket Guide to Hazardous Chemicals you know Nicotine is more hazardous then Arsenic or Cyanide.

If you don't have it, it is online.

Nicotine is listed as a Pesticide or Insecticide in many books on Toxins. Nicotine is ok for Human Use and Marijuana isn't ?


Our FDA approved an opiate for use as a marijuana substitute which is much more dangerous than Marijuana.

Opiates, Tobacco, Alcohol, and prescription drugs kill people, marijuana does not.

Until the horribly rich drug corporations, the synthetic rope and cloth manufactures, and crooked politicians in the United States listed marijuana as a dangerous drug it was a valuable medical herb all over the world and had been in every medical text in our world for thousands of years.

Marijuana should never have been listed as a dangerous drug and banning hemp production hurt the farmers in the United States more than anything else our government has done.

Marijuana doesn't kill people, our CIA, prescription drugs, alcohol,
traffic accidents, tobacco, our War on Drugs, and our wars kill
people.

Our FDA apporved a toxic opiate to be a subsittute for marijuana, one
that kills people


Alcohol, Tobacco, and our Prescription Drugs like the Opiods are dangerous drugs, marijuana is not.


Jeff Sessions knows nothing about poisons. The FDA and CDC should know a little about poisons, but you can not tell it by their actions or words.


The greatest lie is our governments telling us Mariijuana is Dangerous.

Politicians are criminals and skumbags.

Prescription Drugs in the United States kill more people each year than guns and crime, illegal drugs, or even traffic accidents.

Take Marijuana off the list of Dangerous Drugs.


In Washington, DC, Chicago, New York, Detroit, Las Vagas, New Orleans, and all of California and to our EPA, FDA, our Media, Organized Crime, the Drug Manufactures, the AMA, and our damn criminal politicians, everything is only about the money.

Why do we continue to get lies from our scientists, the United Nations, the EU, our Media, and our politicians ?



It is dangerous to be right when the leaders of our world are evil and wrong. It is obvious as day follows night that our political leaders of every nation in our world, the leaders of our religions of every nation in our world, the EU, and the United Nations have one god, the god money. You can tell that by their actions. Each day they lie and labor for more money and for nothing else.

Marijuana is not dangerous and does not kill people but the Marijuana Substitutes, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription drugs kill people and are dangerous.


Is there any way to stop the lies and corruption in the Media and in our Government ?

How long has our Government, our Federal Agencies, our Politicians, and our Media been telling lies ?

Marijuana is only illegal because of lies and money.

Lies, lies, lies, and more propaganda and lies.

At least since 1935.

Like in 1935, 1936, and 1937 only money talks to our Politicians in Washington, DC.

The United States's 1937 decision to list Marijuana as a dangerous drug was wrong.

Research it for yourself, before our damn politicians said Marijuana was dangerous it was in Medicines all over the world and had been since a few thousand years ago when Canibas was listed as a healling herb in the ancient Chinese Medical Books before anyone ever thought about a FDA.

Everything about our FDA, EPA, and Alphabet Soup Federal Agencies is malpractice and an attack on our basic Human Rights, Freedoms, and our Persuit of Happiness.


I am sick of the lies of our Media and our Damn Polliticians.

Synthetic Cloth and Rope makers got Marijuana listed as a Dangerous Drug.

The Scientists, Lobbyists of the Synthetic Rope and Cloth makers, and the fat cat politicians in Washington, DC before 1940 knew nothing about Marijuana other than you could smoke it and get high and they could not tell the difference between Marijuana and Hemp so they made both of them illegal and destroyed the money making Hemp Industry that our farmers had depended on.

No one in the world knew anything about Marijuana until the scientists in Israel finally began to work with it about 35 years after the United States had listed it as a Dangerous Drug by mistake.

Marijuana is a healing herb and has been for thousands of years. It was listed as Cannabis in every medical book from ancient China. Cannabis was a prescribed medicine all over the world before the United State's mistake.

Tobacco is legal to use though it kills people every day and is listed as a pesticide in books on poisons.

Our Prison Industry, Drug Industry, Tobacco Industry, FDA, Medical Community, and their Lobbyists and paid criminal politicians keep Marijuana listed as a Dangerous Drug.

Want the truth, you won't see it on CNN or here it from our Politicians with the money from lobbyists in their Ice Boxes.


Our American Medical Association, our FDA, our CDC, our FBI, our CIA, and our Politicians only lie when money is involved.

Believing our Politicians and our Media today is as bad as believing our Politicians and our Media in 1936 and 1937.

What a bunch of crazy paranoia and deception.

Marijuana should be legal for any one to grow for any purpose and anyone who produces Marijuna Products should be taxed for each product as a like Tobacco Product would be taxed.

Tobacco Products and Nicotine are 1,000 times as dangerous as Marijuana Products.

After all, Nccotine is a Pesticide and as toxic and as dangerous to the insects that eat products Nicotine is used on and as dangerous to the animals that eat those insects as Cynadide and DDT.




Anyone should be able to grow Hemp or Marijuana for any reason they choose.




A company that produces Marijuana products should be taxed on each of those products at the same rate a Tobacco Product like it would be taxed.



Marijuana should never have been listed as a Dangerous Drug and Tobacco contains the pesticide Nicotine, compared to the Relative dangers, if Marijuana should be listed as a Dangerous Drug, Tobacco should be completely banned.


How the horribly rich used propaganda and lies to influence the politicians in Washington, DC in 1937.


Lies and more lies, and a few suitcases full of money.



As easy as bringing gambling, prostitution , and Organized Crime to Las Vegas.


Damn Drug Manufacturers, Organized Crime, Politicians, Lobbyists, Democrats, and Terrorists.
Our Media and Politicians are such liars.

Huffing nicotine the poison from a vapor is just as bad as smoking tobacco, maybe worse.

My guess if you want 200 gallons, 1,000 gallons, or more you can get a real break on the price.

Our FDA sucks.

The Pesticide Nicotine is ok for human use though it kills people, and Marijuana is listed as a Dangerous Drug.


Ha Ha Ha

It is only about the money.

It is only about the money.

It is only about the money.

It is only about the money.

It is only about the money.

It is only about the money.

https://www.vaporworld.biz/categories/bulk/liquid-nicotine.html





https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Sl6a3GmXPA


Is it a conflict of interest for the guy who decides whether Medical Marijuana is available gets money from Prisons or the Drug Corporatoins who do not want Marijuana Availible?

No more of a conflict of Interest for the Traitor Hilary Clinton to have a girl friend who was a spy for the Muslim Brotherhood Terrorist Group and for her to get money from the nations with Islamic Law that support Terrorism and the Communist George Soros.

https://www.facebook.com/springfieldnorml/photos/a.10151845225159947.1073741826.271359609946/10156578083069947/?type=3&theater


http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/tobacco-industry


https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2015/09/02/thousands-farmers-stopped-growing-tobacco-after-deregulation-payouts/32115163/

From 93,330 United States Tobacco Farms in 1997 to 4,368 in 2015, destroying farming in the United States.


In England, demand for tobacco rapidly grew and by 1628 the Chesapeake colonies exported 370,000 pounds annually to England, procuring substantial tax revenues for the state, which overcame early Crown hostility to tobacco cultivation and consumption. Tobacco farming spread quickly to North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia. It also extended to two other regions in which cigar (Cuban) leaf cultivation would come to dominate in the nineteenth century.

In 1700 exports of raw leaf from the British Chesapeake colonies reached 37 million pounds and by the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1776 upward of 100 million pounds.

Together the U.S. and U.K. cartels exploited overseas markets while withdrawing from each other's domestic market. At the turn of the century, upward of one-third of the U.S. trust's cigarettes were exported and 54% or 1.2 billion were exported to China alone. By 1910, the year before its demise, the trust accounted for 75 percent of U.S. tobacco production of all kinds. In 1911, the Supreme Court found the American Tobacco Company in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and ordered its breakup into four major companies: the American Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers, R.J. Reynolds, and P. Lorillard.



http://africanhistory.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.001.0001/acrefore-9780190277734-e-44


Cannabis and tobacco have longstanding roles in African societies. Despite botanical and pharmacological dissimilarities, it is worthwhile to consider tobacco and cannabis together because they have been for centuries the most commonly and widely smoked drug plants. Cannabis, the source of marijuana and hashish, was introduced to eastern Africa from southern Asia, and dispersed widely within Africa mostly after 1500. In sub-Saharan Africa, cannabis was taken into ethnobotanies that included pipe smoking, a practice invented in Africa; in Asia, it had been consumed orally. Smoking significantly changes the drug pharmacologically, and the African innovation of smoking cannabis initiated the now-global practice. Africans developed diverse cultures of cannabis use, including Central African practices that circulated widely in the Atlantic world via slave trading. Tobacco was introduced to Africa from the Americas in the late 1500s. It gained rapid, widespread popularity, and Africans developed distinctive modes of tobacco production and use. Primary sources on these plants are predominantly from European observers, which limits historical knowledge because Europeans strongly favored tobacco and were mostly ignorant or disdainful of African cannabis uses. Both plants have for centuries been important subsistence crops. Tobacco was traded across the continent beginning in the 1600s; cannabis was less valuable but widely exchanged by the same century, and probably earlier. Both plants became cash crops under colonial regimes. Tobacco helped sustain mercantilist and slave-trade economies, became a focus of colonial and postcolonial economic development efforts, and remains economically important. Cannabis was outlawed across most of the continent by 1920. Africans resisted its prohibition, and cannabis production remains economically significant despite its continued illegality.

Smoking pipes were invented in sub-Saharan Africa as early as 600 BCE.10 Archaeologists have found pre-Columbian pipes in sites from Lake Chad to Ethiopia, and south to Botswana.11 Africans invented water pipes, historically associated primarily with cannabis, and dry pipes, associated primarily with tobacco. Only clay or stone pipe bowls survive in most archaeological contexts. Bowls from water pipes and dry pipes are shaped differently, and bowl form suggests different pipe-making traditions. Historically, water-pipe containers were of bamboo, calabash, coconut, antler, or wood; ceramic and glass containers appeared after about 1500, in North Africa. Some pipe types were entirely biodegradable (including dry pipes made from banana petioles) or had no manufactured components (including earth pipes made in the ground entirely from soil).

Most pre-Columbian pipes postdate 1000 CE and come from eastern Africa.12 This apparent pattern tenuously suggests the arrival of cannabis. Earlier pipe bowls in this region generally had smaller capacities than later ones, which implies conservative use of an uncommon substance, such as a newly introduced plant.13 Archaeologists in Ethiopia have found chemical traces of cannabis in pipe bowls from about 1325.

Soon after 1200, the Egyptian sultan determined it unacceptable and suppressed its sale and use.39 Yet ḥashīsh persisted, because subsequent rulers repeatedly prohibited it from the 1500s to 1900s.40 Despite theological concerns, Sufi mystics considered ḥashīsh an acceptable means of enhancing spirituality beginning in the 1100s in Persia.

Cannabis-control laws were unchanged after independence, to keep independent states in compliance with international agreements. Additionally, in a key drug-control agreement in 1961, African states disclaimed indigenous traditions of cannabis use, unlike South Asian countries that legally protected longstanding practices.



Tobacco commercialization and marketing increased after World War II and under postcolonial governments, leading to the development of iconic brands as well as smoking-induced public-health problems.



https://www.britannica.com/event/Prohibition-United-States-history-1920-1933




By the numbers you are five times more likely to die by taking prescribed drugs than by guns or crime.

The big news is not which bathroom to use, what Miley Cyrus or Justin Bieber is doing, Climate Change, or even Hilary Clinton's and Barack Obama's Treason, gun violence, or even the Nuclear Meltdown that is still happening in Japan.

The drugs your doctor prescribes for you are more likely to kill you than guns and crime, Traffic Accidents, or herds of stampeding turtles.

https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/index.html

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2011/p1101_flu_pain_killer_overdose.html

https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/index.html

https://www.rehabs.com/pro-talk-articles/psychiatric-medications-kill-more-americans-than-heroin/


More than 50,000 Americans died from drug overdoses 2015 — the most ever. ..and it's getting worse.

By comparison, the number of people who died in car crashes was 37,757 and 13,286 people were killed in the US by firearms.

The big news is prescription drugs kill us more often than guns and crime or or even Traffic Accidents.




Opioid Overdose | Drug Overdose | CDC Injury Center

Opioids (including prescription opioids, heroin, and fentanyl) killed more than 33,000 people in 2015, more than any year on record. Nearly half of all opioid overdose deaths involve a prescription opioid.

CDC.GOV



Of course if you live in a crime ridden Gun Control Paradice like the Democrat's Chicago, you are 100 times more likely to be shot.



https://www.homebrewing.org/How-to-Brew_ep_31-1.html
How to Brew Beer, Wine, Mead, Hard Cider, and Soda at Home
Learn how to brew beer, wine, mead, hard cider, and soda at home including the required ingredients, the equipment needed, and instructions for how to brew.
Sheikh Mubarak
Former Republican member of the U.S. Congress Bob Inglis shares an optimistic message about how conservatives can lead on climate change and other pressing problems -- and how free enterprise (and working together across ideologies) hold the solutions. "The United States was not built by those who waited and wished to look behind them," Inglis says. "Lead now ... Tell the American people that we still have moon shots in us."🤖☃️🐶🔮🐠💈⚡️💡🖋https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/ted-talks-daily/id160904630?mt=2&i=1000400183187
TED Talks Daily by TEDTalks on Apple Podcasts
Political Reform Australia
#Climate conventions bring legislators under one roof, with marginal outcomes. Although there is no dearth of effort in terms of financial investments or ideating #sustainable transformations, let’s explore why things go wrong!
Visit - http://globalwarmingpoliticalunion.com/failing-rationale-climate-talks-hearth-hope/
#Climate conventions bring legislators under one roof, with marginal outcomes. Although there is no dearth of effort in terms of financial investments or ideating #sustainable transformations, let’s explore why things go wrong! Visit - http://globalwarmingpoliticalunion.com/failing-rationale-climate-talks-hearth-hope/
f92e625d-9fc8-45e2-8daa-3bdbb5c215df
Philippa Jane Brown
Transatlantic trade deal will undermine climate talks in favour of big business | Mark Dearn | Global development | The Guardian
julien geeldharry
5 TED Talks on why climate change is a human rights issue

Learn about the ways climate change is deeply altering how we live, where we live and the foods we eat -- ultimately threatening some of our most basic human rights.
5 TED Talks on why climate change is a human rights issue